The markets have been selling off lately. Since these portfolios are a mix of US and non-US companies there aren’t “simple” indexes that I can use to compare them. But in general, the US markets which by various measures had been up in the 10-20% range are mostly back down to where they were in the beginning of the year and European and Asian markets are about the same or mostly worse.
These portfolios are meant to be long equity-only vehicles for young individuals with a very long time horizon in front of them (50+ years). They are “part” of a total portfolio and meant for a specific purpose; no one should just put all their wealth into a long-only stock fund.
Thus based on these elements I am loathe to do specific buys and sells based on total market conditions, because you are often selling off one stock for another stock with similar characteristics. Our markets today have very high “correlation”, meaning that almost all of the stocks tend to go up or down on a single day, especially when big market events occur. Correlation has been increasing over the years, meaning that even if you have a diversified fund (a rule of thumb is that you have 10 or more instruments that aren’t similar to one another) that doesn’t necessarily “save” you if they all move together.
The nature of the stock markets have been changing in the eleven years since I started this effort with Portfolio One, right around 9/11. There are many trends, but here are the key ones in my opinion:
- Rise in international markets – international markets have always been important, even to US-centric investors, but today they are even more critical. A stock market is fundamentally about “growth”, and most of the real growth is occurring off US shores. Thus to not invest internationally, even with all their structural differences from the US market and other risks, is to miss out on the future
- Reduction in IPO’s – the number of companies listed on exchanges has fallen as the number of IPO’s hasn’t kept pace with companies being acquired either by other companies or “going private”. Also the IPO’s are later (see FB) meaning that a lot of the “upside” is gone when they launch, or there often is no upside at all if they are being sold out of a private equity fund (they already captured that)
- Focus on Dividends – some of the dividend focus is due to favorable tax treatment (the limits on double taxation of dividends) and their 15% rate rather than as ordinary income and some is due to the gradual dawning on more investors that a substantial part of the total return is due to dividends and not just share price appreciation (unrealized)
- Increased government intervention – in order to understand markets today you need to anticipate government moves to a greater degree than in the past. Our large banks might never have survived the 2008 crisis without government intervention, and today they exist. Will the government let them survive the next crisis, or will equity holders be wiped out like their were for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac or Lehman? Now you need to anticipate government reaction
- Increasing Currency gyrations – for many years we had currency stability but we may be entering an era of less stability, especially in the key currencies the dollar, Euro, pound, yuan, etc… This has many effects on competitiveness and immediate valuations
- Low interest rates – a low interest rate policy has many effects on the market. It depresses interest earnings (which impacts some equities) but also makes equities more attractive relative to debt instruments, especially when the chance of default rises.
- The rise of Chinese stocks – while the US market went (mostly) moribund a whole host of Chinese companies came onto US exchanges or were accessible to US investors. A lot of the “froth” and potential “boiler room” activities went into those stocks instead of US stocks
Here at Trust Funds for Kids we try to look at the long time horizon and make decisions accordingly. This doesn’t mean that short term gyrations aren’t painful, as well.